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Lithium Batteries - Operating Rules
Batteries - Repair / Operation / DIY

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Discuss, share information about the proper use of batteries

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Post has been editedstp101 - 03.10.19, 13:17
Reason for editing: New cap edited DarkJS



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Owners of various devices sometimes have certain difficulties in finding information about the proper operation of batteries. This brief FAQ is dedicated to this question.
All modern phones, smartphones and PDAs are equipped with lithium-based batteries - lithium-ion or lithium-polymer, so in the future we will talk about them. These batteries have a remarkable capacity and service life, but require very strict adherence to certain rules of operation. These rules can be dividedinto two groups:
1. User Independent
2. Dependent on user.

In the first groupincludes the fundamental rules of charge and discharge of batteries, which are controlled by a device (controller) built into the battery, and sometimes also by an additional controller located outside the battery in the PDA itself. These rules are simple:
1- A battery should be in a state all its life in which its voltage does not exceed 4.2 volts and does not fall below 2.7 volts. These voltages are indicators of respectively the maximum (100%) and minimum (0%) charge.
2- The amount of energy given off by a battery when its charge changes from 100% to 0% is its capacity. Some manufacturers limit the maximum voltage to 4.1 volts, while the battery lives longer, but its capacity is reduced by about 10%. Also, sometimes the lower threshold rises to 3.0 volts with the same consequences.
2- The highest battery durability is achieved at approximately 45 percent charge, and with an increase or decrease in the degree of charge the battery life is reduced. That is why literate manufacturers sell batteries that are about half full. If the charge is within the limits provided by the battery controller (see above), the change in durability is not very significant, but still.
3- If, due to circumstances, the voltage on the battery exceeds the limits indicated above, even for a short time, its lifespan dramatically decreases. Such states are called overcharge and overdischarge and are very dangerous for the battery.
4- controllers of batteries intended for different devices if they (controllers) are made with appropriate quality, never allow the battery voltage during the charge to become more than 4.2 volts, but, depending on the purpose of the battery, can limit the minimum voltage in different ways discharge. So, in the battery, designed for, say, the screwdriver or motor model of the car, the minimum voltage will most likely be really minimally permissible, and for the PDA or smartphone - higher, for the minimum voltage of 2.7 volts may simply not be enough to work the device's electronics. That is why in complex devices like phones, PDAs, etc. The controller battery itself complements the controller in the device itself.

In the second groupIncludes operating rules that we can influence with you, thereby significantly increasing or decreasing the battery life. These rules are as follows:
1- you need to try not to bring the battery to a minimum charge and even more so to the state when the machine turns off, but if it happened, charge the battery as soon as possible.
2- No need to be afraid of frequent recharging, including partial when the full charge is not achieved. The battery does not harm it. At the same time, I am guided by common sense: if with the usual use of the PDA, I always put it for charging before bedtime, then in the case of very intensive use (constantly included WiFi, listening to music, etc.) when the charge comes close to the minimum, do not bend straight At work, connect the PDA to any USB accessible. In the absence of a normal charger and using the USB instead, the USB is particularly important not to wait for a complete discharge, because, in this case, the current from the USB port may not be enough to start the charging process.
3- Contrary to the viewing of many users, the reload is harmful to lithium batteries no less, but even more than a deep discharge. The controller of course controls the maximum charge level, but there is one subtlety. It is well known that the capacity of the batteries depends on temperature. So, if for example, we charged the battery at room temperature and got 100% charge, then when you exit frost and cooling the machine, the degree of charge of the battery may decrease to 80% and lower. But there may be a reverse situation. The battery charged at room temperature up to 100%, being a little heated, will become charged, say, up to 105%, and this is very and very unfavorable for it. Such situations are found during the operation of the machine, for a long time in the Credle. During operation, the temperature of the device and with it the battery rises, and after all the charge is already full ...
In this regard, the rule says: if you need to work in the cradle, first disconnect the machine from charging, work on it, and when it comes to the “combat” mode - connect the charging.
By the way, this rule also applies to owners of laptops and other gadgets.
Added by: in modern laptops, charging controllers work correctly: they monitor the temperature and mode of operation of the computer, while there is no need to perform certain actions when working from the outlet.
4- The ideal conditions for long-term storage of the battery is to be outside the device with a charge of about 50%. A working battery does not require you to take care of yourself for months (about six months).

And finally, some more information.
- Contrary to the prevailing opinion, lithium batteries, unlike nickel batteries, have almost no “memory effect”, so the so-called “training” of a new lithium battery makes little sense. For your own reassurance, it is enough one or two times to fully charge-discharge a new battery, mainly for calibrating an additional controller.
- Device owners know that you can charge the battery both from the charger and from USB. At the same time, it is often forgotten by the impossibility of charging from USB. The fact is that by "law" the USB controller must give peripheral devices connected to it, a current of about 500 mA. However, there are situations when either the controller itself cannot provide such a current, or the device is connected to a USB controller, which already hangs some peripherals that consumes some of the power. So lack current for charging, especially if the battery is discharged too much.
- Lithium-containing batteries do not like freezing. Always try to avoid using the machine on a hard frost - get carried away - the battery will have to be changed. Well, of course, if you got the machine out of the warm inside pocket of your jacket and took a couple of notes or calls, and then put the animal back - there will be no problems.
- Practice shows that lithium batteries (not only batteries) reduce their capacity with decreasing atmospheric pressure (in high mountains, in an airplane). Harm to batteries does not bring it, you just need to take into account this fact.
- It happens that after purchasing an increased capacity accumulator (I will say 2200 ma-h instead of a regular 1100 ma-h) The machine after a couple of days of using the new battery begins to behave strangely: it hangs, it turns off, charging the battery does it seems, but somehow strange and t .P. It is possible that your charger that works with success on the "native" battery is simply unable to provide a sufficient charge current of the large capacity battery. Exit - purchase of a charger with a large current current (let's say 2 amps instead of the former 1 ampere).

For those who speak English, I can recommend a great "educational program" for batteries, including the principles of operation of controllers, etc. -http://www.batteryuniversity.com/index.htm

Post has been editedslimest - 18.09.15, 17:09
Reason for editing: Edit, +1 by dar7



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From myself I will add - battery when flying on an airplane or climbing into the mountains is discharged faster.
So do not be alarmed- this is normal



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And I'm on my own .... :)
1. Lithium metal hydride batteries do not exist. Probably confused. There are metal hydride (this is completely different) and lithium-polymer.
2. lithium Akum Pts. do not like frosts, just die in the cold. So wear your device in a warm place. : wink_kind:



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I'll add a little about the phenomenon of self-discharge
The phenomenon of the self-discharge is characterized in a greater or lesser extent for all types of batteries and lies in their loss of their capacity after they were fully charged. For a quantitative evaluation of the self-discharge, it is convenient to use the value lost by them during a certain time, expressed as a percentage of the value obtained immediately after the charge. Over the interval, as a rule, an interval of time is taken equal to one day and one month. For example, for good NiCd batteries, it is considered to be permissible self-discharge up to 10% during the first 24 hours after the charge is completed, for NiMH - a little more, and for Li-Ion is negligible and estimated for the month. It should be noted that the self-discharge of batteries is maximum in the first 24 hours after charge, and then significantly decreases.

NiCD batteries for a month can lose up to 20% of capacity, NiMH - up to 30%. Li-ION battery is discharged by 3-5% during the first 30 days, then the value of the self-discharge current drops to 1-3% per month. In addition, the electronic protection circuit built into the Li-ION battery can consume up to 3% per month.

A good acid battery discharges an average of 5% per month or 50% per year. Its deep discharge and subsequent charge increases the self-discharge current.

The self-discharge of batteries is mainly due to the release of oxygen at the positive electrode. This process is further enhanced at elevated temperatures.Thus, with an increase in the ambient temperature of 10 degrees relative to room temperature, the self-discharge may be doubled.To some extent, self-discord depends on the quality of the materials used, the manufacturing process, type and design of the battery. The loss of the tank can be caused by damage to the separator, when the formations of the fused crystals pierce it. The separator is customary to call a thin plate separating positive and negative electrodes. This usually occurs due to improper battery maintenance, its absence or applying inappropriate or low-quality chargers. In a worn battery, the plates of the electrodes swell, sticking together with each other, which leads to an increase in the self-discharge current, while the damaged separator cannot be restored by the charge / discharge cycles.

Evaluation of the degree of self-discharge can be made using a battery analyzer according to the following algorithm:
the battery is fully charged and its capacity is measured;
the battery is recharged and "resting" for 24 hours, after which its capacity is measured again.



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And I'm from myself ...;)
Lithium Akum have such an unpleasant feature as a limited shelf life. Those. they begin to deteriorate gradually immediately after production, regardless of whether they work or simply lie. Therefore, there is no point in stocking up with spare lithium Akums for the future.



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And even when discharged with a current that is numerically equal to the capacity of the battery (i.e., the battery has a capacity of 1.1A / h is 1.1A) or close (more than 70% of the battery capacity), the capacity can drop up to two times (only during the discharge current). This explains why, with a very strong load, the battery of a small capacity discharges particularly quickly. Charts depending capacity of the load current can be found in the internet.



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It seemed to me that it is better not to store at 50, but at 40%.



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Gepard @ 03/25/07 4:43:25 PM
store better not at 50, and at 40%

Strictly speaking, yes. But the differences in battery life at 50% and 40% are so negligible that I allowed myself “liberty,” recommending half the charge. Half is best remembered :)



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Those. they begin to deteriorate gradually immediately after production

Moreover, it is noticed that for some reason the decrease in capacity occurs in jumps. How many times did I see that today I was still working weakly but I worked, and then after charging everything, I died. Apparently the controller itself chops off the bad (in his opinion) banks of the battery. And in fact, the banks are still half dead but undead.

I know for sure that when charging batteries in a laptop, the charge controller is programming for the next charge cycle.
And it so happens that some kind of bank did not normally respond when charging, and everything will not be charged the next time the bank is charged.
True, there are programs that recheck the banks and somehow restore them, returning it to the charge cycle.



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And I would add here about it:
The first charge of a lithium battery is no different from the 5th or 50th. Therefore, it is not at all necessary to follow the instructions for a long, 8-hour charge before first using the battery. The charging controller will still disconnect the current when the battery reaches 100%.
Unlike nickel and lead, lithium-containing batteries do not require several cycles of full charge / discharge to achieve maximum capacity, since they immediately have one. However, the one-time cycle recommended by manufacturers is a full charge - a complete discharge before regular operation is necessary for calibrating the charge controller. After such a cycle, the controller correctly perceives the minimum and maximum battery charge, which allows optimal use of its capacity.

Until today, he tried to hold the battery a little longer during the first charge.

M
Please do not copy-paste in English, but translate.
Translated for you. Thanks for the helpful addition.


Post has been editedslimest - 02.04.07, 17:37



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IMHO in vain began to write questions in this thread.



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Reduser , You are absolutely right :) Colleagues, questions are asked in the FAQ section. This thread is informational only.

M
Removed all not relevant to the topic.

gabby , thanks for the support of the branch;)



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I also heard that lithium batteries mona stored in the refrigerator. Is it true? And then on the laptop Akum I do not use to finally discharge it by 40% and in the refrigerator? last longer. o.O



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leks2000 , of course you can store, but why? !! Suppose for safety for several years - well, probably (although it is doubtful), but I don’t see any more sense.



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leks2000 @ 05/31/07 3:54:28
I also heard that lithium batteries mona stored in the refrigerator. Is it true? And then on the laptop Akum I do not use to finally discharge it by 40% and in the refrigerator? last longer.

RAVE.
carefully read the instruction manual: rtfm:
In general, all electronics do not like low temperatures, especially batteries, especially lithium. Modern batteries will most likely endure cold, but why risk it ?!

You want so long enough. Charge, take out and put next.
The service life of lithium batteries 2-4 years, and the role played or she did not play the role.



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The service life of lithium batteries 2-4 years, and the role played or she did not play the role.

Golden words, fully join with the addition: 2-4 years, subject to the above recommendations :)



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When it studied the materials on the topic of batteries and in the process got acquainted with the studies that were conducted by the US Navy regarding lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries (submarines). So as a result, it turned out that the holding of cyclic charges / discharges increases the duration of the battery service (without fanaticism of course, there seems to be a period of about 3 months), as well as not for anyone will not be a secret that these types of batteries also possess the "memory" effect Although not so pronounced.
From myself I can add that at that time I applied this method to the Siemens S45 battery, once every 3 months doing a full charge / charge, so this device still (3.5 years) continues to work with the native battery, though now it only lasts a day and a half . Perhaps this is just a good copy, but given that those who purchased the same phones with me threw out the batteries a year later, I tend to think that there is something in it.



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Check out what people are messing about:li-ion rehabilitation



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About the work on the frost and killing this battery. Not sure that for modern batteries it is so critical. I will explain on the example (the truth is not directly connected with PDA :)). I have a Canon EOS 350D camera. It uses Liion NB-2LH battery. So last year's winter I shot on the frost -15-18 degrees within 2.5 - 3 hours. The camera was on the belly, constantly included (MB. The case in this, because the battery was all the time under load). Made more than 250 shots. After that, there was more than 100 or personnel in the room. The battery has not yet discharged. Because of the responsible shooting, the next day I had to put it on recharging. After that, the last summer did from one charge more than 700 frames on the feast of Koriushki in St. Petersburg (even. It did not lose the container). I still use it all ok.

I do not claim that it will work equally with all batteries, but the fact is, as they say, on the face.


PS: The fact that some batteries do not like the cold I know firsthand. In the old Nokia in the cold, the battery died.



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Dmitry68 @ 07.07.07 19:34:06
I'm not sure that this is so critical for modern batteries.

Now they have learned to make Li-ion batteries that are not critical to low temperatures.
Here are the old dead as soon as the temperature went to zero. And I think modern Chinese (any leftist) will also be better.


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