Android - Glossary | Frequently used terms

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Android - Glossary

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This topic lists only the most commonly used Android terms. For a more complete list of terms and jargon refer to the topic.Terms and jargon, and also use the English-Russian dictionary.

  • Adb (Android Debug Bridge - Android Debug Bridge) - a tool that is installed with the Android-SDK and allows you to control an Android OS device. You can find it in the platform-tools folder unpacked by the SDK. ADB is the management of an android device using commands from a computer. To work with adb, any android device is equipped with software, and drivers and software are written for the computer.
  • Android SDK - a universal shell for modeling and developing various software products for the Android operating system.
  • AOSP (English, abbr. Android open source project) - a project of the Android operating system with open source. Most often AOSP is called firmware collected from the AOSP project. AOSP is essentially a firmware for google devices. It is considered a "clean" firmware.
  • APK - The installation file of the application for the Android operating system, is analogous to MSI in WIndows and DEB in Linux. It is an extension of the installation file. When an APK application is installed, the file is copied to the / data / app folder on the device storage device, and is used when the application is launched.
  • ART - application execution environment in the operating system (OS) Android, which replaced the Dalvik. Unlike Dalvik compiles the code only once - when installing the application. As a result, the application takes a little more space, longer set, but should start and run faster. To take advantage of ART in beta version appeared in Android 4.4.0. Android is completely switched to Wednesday ART, since version Android 5.0. The transition to ART may not associated with speed and with litigation between Oracle and Google.
  • Bootloader - operating system loader, often used in a distorted sense: device mode, used to replace the firmware or its parts. To enter the bootloader means to open the menu of the operating system loader.
  • ClockworkMod recovery (CWM) - modified the unofficial recovery, which is available for most devices running Android. It has much more features than the native recovery. On some devices installed in place of the native recovery, on the other devices installed in parallel. It allows you to install unofficial firmware, easy to install patches and patches in the form of zip-files, create a backup copy of the firmware and user data, do a factory reset (wipe data / factory reset), the cache cleanup (cache), dalvik Cache (Dalvik-cache ) statistics battery (battery stats), formatting and partitioning the memory card and more.
  • Dalvik - Java virtual machine, which is used to run programs (only with the APK extension) in order to make access faster, the default compiler. Dalvik uses its own bytecode. When developing an Android application, they are translated by the compiler into a special machine-independent low-level code. When executed on a platform, Dalvik interprets and executes such a program.
  • Dalvik cache (Dalvik cache) - intermediate buffer with quick access, containing information that can be requested with the greatest probability, in this case created by the Dalvik virtual machine. In other words, Dalvik-cache is the result of optimization by the Dalvik virtual machine, the most frequently launched programs.
  • Deodex - The Android-device in the folder / system / app in the official firmware available and Odex APK files. Deodex means that all odex files are included in the APK and in the folder / system / app there. Deodex system is convenient for editing, but it is less stable and slow in comparison with odex-system. In practice, the speed does not change. Files odex is packaged modules dex code. Odex used Dalvik virtual machine to accelerate startup application. Odex: In order to download Dalvik VM executable code (classes.dex) can be taken out of the program (file .apk) into separate files with the extension .odex. Typically, in such a factory installed (formal) EEPROM. The disadvantage of such a decision - the inability to change the interface and applications. Deodex: converting the executable code from files .odex back inside program files (.apk). To install the firmware Deodex'ed usually need a step-Root and Recovery.
  • Fastboot - Android device loader mode, in which the device receives commands from the computer. Used mainly for flashing, cleaning partitions and unlocking the device loader.
  • Google applications(GAPPS, Google apps) - The common name of all programs from Google, which are included in the firmware. Programs from Google include: Gmail, Youtube, Hangouts, Google Play, Calendar and more. In some even official firmware, there may be no programs from Google at all. In unofficial firmware, the set of programs from Google may vary. To install programs from Google, installation zip files for unofficial recovery are released.
  • Google play (the old name is market) is the official Android app store from Google. Access to the store from the phone is carried out via the Play Store application of the same name - a catalog of applications divided by subject. Through the Play Store you can see the description of applications and reviews on them, buy, install or update applications. To purchase applications, you must attach a bank card to Google Wallet.
  • JIT - Just-in-time compilation (JIT, compiling "on the fly»), dynamic translation (dynamic compilation) - technology to increase the performance of software systems using byte code by compiling bytecode into machine code at run-time program. Thus, a high speed performance (comparable to compiled languages) by increasing memory consumption (for storing the compilation of results) and the cost of compilation time. Built into the operating system from version 2.2 Froyo
  • Kernel (English) - This core operating system . The kernel is part of any firmware (that is, it is contained absolutely in any firmware). The kernel is not a feature of android devices, it exists as the basis of any OS, in fact, the kernel is the OS, it is responsible for working with the hardware. As a rule, the kernel can be replaced by unofficial methods with another without replacing the remaining parts of the firmware. Most often, you can replace the kernel using a non-native recovery.
  • LineageOS (CyanogenMod) - The project, which creates unofficial firmware for some Android devices. Firmware are created based on open source Android. The latest version of Android is always supported. A distinctive feature of LineageOS firmware is performance and a small number of embedded applications in relation to the official firmware. LineageOS also gives a number of features, improvements, settings, add-ons, which are currently not in the official firmware of Android devices.
  • MIUI - flash with a distinctive interface based on the Android operating system. Originally developed by Xiaomi Tech as the official firmware for their devices. At the moment, produced and unofficial MIUI firmware for other devices. Firmware are based on the latest version of Android, open source code project. A distinctive feature of MIUI firmware is strongly modified graphical user interface that resembles iOS, at the same time preserves the advantages of the Android operating system. In MIUI interface missing the applications menu. MIUI includes additional functions initially missing from the standard Android: change the graphic design, voice recorder, phone dialer with support T9 search in contacts, and other improvements and additions. Deciphering MIUI is divided into two parts: MI - an abbreviation of Xiaomi, and UI - User Interface (UI).
  • Ota (English Over The Air.) - Partial or full firmware update via the Internet ( "Air"). Less commonly used abbreviation of the full FOTA (Eng. Firmware Over The Air). When upgrading the air user data (settings, files, applications, etc.) will not be erased, in contrast to the firmware via the computer. Update is as follows: the device automatically when you turn on the Internet or check for updates manually (often located in the settings section on your phone / update) checks whether there is an update on the server, if there is an update, the device offers them to download and install. The device downloads the update as a ZIP-file for the native recovery. After downloading the update file in the native device reboots recovery and install updates, then the device is loaded again mode. ZIP file will be deleted after the update. Update before installing downloaded to / data / cache, but the presence of root installation can be copied.
  • Recovery (Rekaveri) - bootloader mode in Android devices. The list of possibilities and ways of loading into recovery mode to specify the subject of the firmware of your device. Native recovery is used in most cases to make a wipe data / factory reset (factory reset). Also, the native recovery is a function of the installation zip-files, but it allows you to install only files signed by the manufacturer. Mainly as a zip installers for native recovery installed all the updates over the air. There are third-party recovery with advanced functions for many devices such as: clockworkmod, TWRP, safestrap, openrecovery and others. On some modern devices, such as Sony, recovery is missing.
  • Root - superuser (are analogous account in Windows administrator account). Get complete access to the operating system: changes in system files, run some third-party applications, system backup. Get root means to obtain superuser privileges, to be more precise, add to the possibility of issuing firmware superuser applications. In most devices, root law is obtained together with write access to the section of system. Superuser (root), SuperSU, kingroot - is a program that gives other applications root access, there are others. Most often, the installation superuser app comes together to form a super-user rights. Often confuse the term superuser and root, root - is the superuser, and superuser - this application.
  • Swap - Virtual memory. The partition on the physical drive that the OS uses to expand the RAM. Created for devices with a small amount of RAM. It is installed and included additionally.
  • TWRP - TeamWin Recovery Project - modified the unofficial recovery, which is available for most devices running Android. It has much more features than the native recovery. On some devices installed in place of the native recovery, on the other devices installed in parallel. It allows you to install unofficial firmware, easy to install patches and patches in the form of zip-files, create a backup copy of the firmware and user data, do a factory reset (wipe data / factory reset), the cache cleanup (cache), dalvik Cache (Dalvik-cache ), much more.
  • Wipe - This is a complete reset of settings and data (analogue Hard reset in Windows Mobile). Most often, when they talk about wipe, they mean resetting data to factory settings (ie, wipe data / factory reset - reset to factory settings). This clears sections. / data and / cache The system folder is cleared in the internal storage device .android_secure on the memory card, i.e. all installed applications are deleted, all system settings are reset. Data on the memory card remains. If you changed the system data (the contents of the / system section), i.e. something was replaced in the operating system (for example, they installed the driver, got the superuser rights), or deleted the system files, such data will not be restored.
  • zRam - Linux kernel module. Increases the amount of free RAM due to data compression. At the same time, the processor of the device is more loaded. Used on devices with a small amount of RAM. It is installed and included additionally.
  • Mounting - A process that prepares a disk partition for use by the operating system. That is, the mounting is the process of connecting the file system to the root file system "/" for use by its operating system. Unlike Windows OS, Android system has a different file system. For example, when connecting a flash drive in Windows, it is displayed as a "removable disk F" F: \, and in Linux, for example, as a folder to / mnt / sdcard in the root (where the OS is installed) file system "/".

List of popular unofficial recovery

List of popular unofficial firmware

In the creation of the Glossary participated:mainbord , Crea , junoreaktor , Prislav , _faber_ , JunkiedOK , racoon

Post has been editedGridzilla - 22.11.18, 07:42

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