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Google nexus 5
Android - Glossary
This topic lists only the most commonly used Android terms. For a more complete list of terms and jargon refer to the topic.Terms and jargon
, and also use the English-Russian dictionary.
- Adb(Android Debug Bridge - Android Debug Bridge) - a tool that is installed with the Android-SDK and allows you to control an Android OS device. You can find it in the platform-tools folder unpacked by the SDK. ADB is the management of an android device using commands from a computer. To work with adb, any android device is equipped with software, and drivers and software are written for the computer.
- Android SDK- a universal shell for modeling and developing various software products for the Android operating system.
- AOSP(English, abbr. Android open source project) - a project of the Android operating system with open source. Most often AOSP is called firmware collected from the AOSP project. AOSP is essentially a firmware for google devices. It is considered a "clean" firmware.
- APK- The installation file of the application for the Android operating system, is analogous to MSI in WIndows and DEB in Linux. It is an extension of the installation file. When an APK application is installed, the file is copied to the / data / app folder on the device storage device, and is used when the application is launched.
- ART- the application runtime on the Android operating system (OS), which has replaced Dalvik. Unlike Dalvik, it compiles the code only once - when installing the application. As a result, the application takes a little more space, it takes longer to install, but it should run and work faster. The ability to use ART in test mode appeared in the version of Android 4.4.0. Fully Android has moved to the ART environment, starting with the version of Android 5.0. The transition to ART is probably not connected with speed, but with litigation between Oracle and Google.
- Bootloader- operating system loader, often used in a distorted sense: device mode, used to replace the firmware or its parts. To enter the bootloader means to open the menu of the operating system loader.
- ClockworkModrecovery (CWM) is a modified unofficial recovery that is released for most devices running Android. It has much more features than native recovery. On some devices it is installed instead of native recovery, on other devices it is installed in parallel. Allows you to install unofficial firmware, easily install patches and patches in the form of zip files, create a backup of the firmware and user data, reset to factory settings (wipe data / factory reset), clear the cache (cache), dalwick cache (Dalvik-cache ), battery statistics (battery stats), formatting and partitioning on a memory card and much more.
- Dalvik- Java virtual machine, which is used to run programs (only with the APK extension) in order to make access faster, the default compiler. Dalvik uses its own bytecode. When developing an Android application, they are translated by the compiler into a special machine-independent low-level code. When executed on a platform, Dalvik interprets and executes such a program.
- Dalvik cache(Dalvik cache) - intermediate buffer with quick access, containing information that can be requested with the greatest probability, in this case created by the Dalvik virtual machine. In other words, Dalvik-cache is the result of optimization by the Dalvik virtual machine, the most frequently launched programs.
- Deodex- On the Android device in the / system / app folder in the official firmware there are APK and Odex files. Deodex means that all odex files are included in the APK and they are not in the / system / app folder. The deodex system is convenient for editing, but is considered less stable and slower than the odex system. In practice, the speed does not change. Odex files are packaged dex code modules. Odex is used by the Dalvik virtual machine to speed up application launch. Odex: To speed up the download of Dalvik VM, the executable code (classes.dex) can be rendered from programs (.apk files) into separate files with the .odex extension. As a rule, factory (official) firmware is installed in this form. The disadvantage of this solution is the impossibility of changing the interface and applications. Deodex: Convert the executable code from .odex files back into the program files (.apk). To install Deodex'ed firmware, Root and non-native Recovery are usually needed.
- Fastboot- Android device loader mode, in which the device receives commands from the computer. Used mainly for flashing, cleaning partitions and unlocking the device loader.
- Google applications(GAPPS, Google apps)- The common name of all programs from Google, which are included in the firmware. Programs from Google include: Gmail, Youtube, Hangouts, Google Play, Calendar and more. In some even official firmware, there may be no programs from Google at all. In unofficial firmware, the set of programs from Google may vary. To install programs from Google, installation zip files for unofficial recovery are released.
- Google play(the old name is market) is the official Android app store from Google. Access to the store from the phone is carried out via the Play Store application of the same name - a catalog of applications divided by subject. Through the Play Store you can see the description of applications and reviews on them, buy, install or update applications. To purchase applications, you must attach a bank card to Google Wallet.
- JIT- Just-in-time compilation (JIT, on-the-fly compilation), dynamic translation (dynamic compilation) is a technology for increasing the performance of software systems that use bytecode by compiling bytecode into native code during program operation. Thus, a high execution speed (comparable with compiled languages) is achieved by increasing memory consumption (to store the compilation results) and compile-out time. Built into the operating system since version 2.2 Froyo
- Kernel(English) - Thiscore operating system. The kernel is part of any firmware (that is, it is contained absolutely in any firmware). The kernel is not a feature of android devices, it exists as the basis of any OS, in fact, the kernel is the OS, it is responsible for working with the hardware. As a rule, the kernel can be replaced by unofficial methods with another without replacing the remaining parts of the firmware. Most often, you can replace the kernel using a non-native recovery.
- LineageOS (CyanogenMod)- The project, which creates unofficial firmware for some Android devices. Firmware are created based on open source Android. The latest version of Android is always supported. A distinctive feature of LineageOS firmware is performance and a small number of embedded applications in relation to the official firmware. LineageOS also gives a number of features, improvements, settings, add-ons, which are currently not in the official firmware of Android devices.
- MIUI- firmware with a distinctive interface based on the Android operating system. Originally developed by Xiaomi Tech as official firmware for their devices. Currently unofficial MIUI firmware for other devices are being released. Firmware are created based on the latest version of Android, the source code of the project is open. A distinctive feature of the MIUI firmware is a strongly modified graphical interface, reminiscent of iOS, while preserving the advantages of the Android operating system. The MIUI interface is missing the application menu. MIUI includes additional features that were originally missing in the standard Android: changing themes of graphic design, voice recorder, dialer with support for T9 search in contacts and other improvements and additions. MIUI decryption is divided into two parts: MI is an abbreviation for Xiaomi, and UI is the User Interface.
- Ota(English Over The Air) - Partial or full firmware update via the Internet (by "air"). Less commonly used is the full abbreviation FOTA (English Firmware Over The Air). When updating over the air, user data (settings, files, applications, etc.) are not erased, unlike the firmware through a computer. The update is as follows: the device automatically when you turn on the Internet or when checking for updates manually (most often found in the settings in the phone / update section) checks if there are updates on the server, if there are updates, the device offers to download and install them. The device downloads the update as a zip file for native recovery. After downloading the update file, the device reboots into native recovery mode and installs the update, after which the device boots again. ZIP file after the update is deleted. The update before installation is downloaded to / data / cache, but installations with a root can be copied.
- Recovery(recovery) - bootloader mode in Android devices. The list of features and ways to boot into the recovery mode specify in the thread on the firmware of your device. Native recovery is used in most cases to do wipe data / factory reset (reset to factory settings). Also, native recovery has a function for installing zip-files, but it allows you to install only archives signed by the manufacturer. Basically, in the form of zip installers for a native recovery, all updates over the air are installed. For many devices, there are third-party recovery with advanced features such as clockworkmod, TWRP, safestrap, openrecovery and others. On some modern devices, such as Sony, there is no recovery.
- Root- superuser rights (are analogous to an administrator account in Windows). They allow you to get full access to the operating system: changing system files, running some third-party applications, backing up the system. Getting root means getting superuser rights, more precisely, adding the ability to issue superuser rights to applications in the firmware. In most devices, root rights are obtained along with write rights to the system partition. Superuser (superuser), SuperSU, kingroot is a program that gives other applications superuser rights, there are others. Most often, the installation of the superuser application occurs along with obtaining superuser rights. The terms superuser and root are often confused, root is the superuser rights, and superuser is the application.
- Swap- Virtual memory. The partition on the physical drive that the OS uses to expand the RAM. Created for devices with a small amount of RAM. It is installed and included additionally.
- TWRP- TeamWin Recovery Project - modified unofficial recovery, which is available for most devices running Android. It has much more features than native recovery. On some devices it is installed instead of native recovery, on other devices it is installed in parallel. Allows you to install unofficial firmware, easily install patches and patches in the form of zip files, create a backup of the firmware and user data, reset to factory settings (wipe data / factory reset), clear the cache (cache), dalwick cache (Dalvik-cache ), much more.
- Wipe- This is a complete reset of settings and data (analogue Hard reset in Windows Mobile). Most often, when they talk about wipe, they mean resetting data to factory settings (ie, wipe data / factory reset - reset to factory settings). This clears sections./ data and / cache The system folder is cleared in the internal storage device .android_secure on the memory card, i.e. all installed applications are deleted, all system settings are reset. Data on the memory card remains. If you changed the system data (the contents of the / system section), i.e. something was replaced in the operating system (for example, they installed the driver, got the superuser rights), or deleted the system files, such data will not be restored.
- zRam - Linux kernel module. Increases the amount of free RAM due to data compression. At the same time, the processor of the device is more loaded. Used on devices with a small amount of RAM. It is installed and included additionally.
M List of popular unofficial recovery List of popular unofficial firmware In the creation of the Glossary participated:mainbord , Crea , junoreaktor , Prislav , _faber_ , JunkiedOK
- Mounting - A process that prepares a disk partition for use by the operating system. That is, the mounting is the process of connecting the file system to the root file system "/" for use by its operating system. Unlike Windows OS, Android system has a different file system. For example, when connecting a flash drive in Windows, it is displayed as a "removable disk F" F: \, and in Linux, for example, as a folder to / mnt / sdcard in the root (where the OS is installed) file system "/".
, racoon Post has been editedGridzilla - 22.11.18, 07:42